Researches

now browsing by category

 
Posted by: | Posted on: August 30, 2014

Swearing words in Khmer ancient inscription since Funan period

Reading swearing words of ancient Khmer people through this article, I am astonished by its level of politically correctness. Descriptively, from earlier Funan period of first century to A.D.624 (called Funan or Phnom Kingdom), to Chenda kingdom and Angkor Kingdom respectively, the rhetoric of swearing inscribed at the end of the whole inscription writing maintained the same level “cursing to go to hell if one stole the worshiping statue or destroying such statue and this curse will remain the same whenever the sun and moon are still orbiting around this universe”. The way of cursing that ancient Khmers articulated is simple and non-provocative or humiliating or bullying textual. As ancient Khmers were dignified by their honesty, gratitude and respect of others, we don’t see much arrogant and pejorative mouthing from this study.

ពាក្យ​ប្រទិច​ផ្តាសា​ក្នុងសង្គម​ខ្មែរ​នា​សម័យបុរាណ​

សញ្ញាណ​នៃ​បុណ្យ បាប ឋានសួគ៌ នរក សម្រាប់​សាសនិក​ខ្មែរ​នា​សម័យ​បុ​រេ​អង្គរ (​ហ្វូ​-​ណន និង​ចេនឡា​) និង​អង្គរ ដែលជា​បទ​ប​ញ្ញាទ​ខាង​មនោ​គម​វិទ្យា​សាសនា បាន​ដើរតួនាទី​យ៉ាងសំខាន់​ក្នុងសង្គម​ខ្មែរ គ្រប់​សម័យកាល​ទាំងអស់​។ ការចាប់អារម្មណ៍​រប​ស់​យើង គឺ​នៅ​ខាងចុង​អត្ថបទ​សិលាចារឹក​បុរាណ​មួយចំនួន​ដែល​យើង​បាន​សិក្សា​ជាមួយ​លោក ក្លូត ហ្ស័​ក និង​អ្នកគ្រូ​ពៅ សាវ​រស កន្លងមក មាន​ចារ​ពាក្យ​ដាក់​បណ្តាសា​នេះ​។ អត្ថន័យ​នៃ​ពាក្យ​ទាំងនេះ បង្ហាញ​ឲ្យ​យើង​ឃើញ​ដល់​វិស័យ​សីលធម៌​ដ៏​ខ្ពង់ខ្ពស់​របស់​មនុស្ស​ខ្មែរ នា​ជំនាន់​ដើម ក្រៅពីនោះ វា​ក៏​ជា​សក្ខីកម្ម​ដល់​និរន្តរភាព​នៃ​ទំនៀមទម្លាប់​ប្រពៃណី ជំនឿ​សាសនា​របស់​ខ្មែរ​យ៉ាង​ប្រាកដ នៅតាម​សម័យកាល​វិ​វត្ត​នីមួយៗ​នៃ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​។​


​    ​សូមបញ្ជាក់ថា ពាក្យ​ដាក់​បណ្តាសារ​ទាំងនោះ ជាទូទៅ​ត្រូវបាន​ចារ​នៅ​ផ្នែក​ខាងចុង​នៃ​អត្ថបទ​សិលាចារឹក​។ ក្នុង​អត្ថបទ​ដ៏​ខ្លី​នេះ យើង​គ្រាន់តែ​សូម​លើកយក​អត្ថបទ​សិលាចារឹក​ពាក់ព័ន្ធ​ទៅនឹង​ប្រពៃណី​ការ​ប្រទេច​បណ្តាសា​ខាងលើនេះ ចំនួន​តែ​៤ មក​ពិភាក្សា​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ​។ នៅទីនេះ សិលាចារឹក​ទាំងនោះ ដែល​យើង​នឹង​ពិនិត្យ​ខ្លឹមសារ ចែកចេញជា​សម័យកាល​ដូចតទៅ​នេះ ៖ ១- សម័យ​អន្តរកាល រវាង​នគរ​ភ្នំ និង ចេនឡា ២- សម័យ​ចេនឡា និង ៣- សម័យអង្គរ​។​


​    ​សូមជម្រាបថា បើ​និយាយ​ដល់​សម័យ​ហ្វូ​-​ណន ឬ​នគរ​ភ្នំ ពីស​.​វ​ទី​១ ដល់​ឆ្នាំ ៦២៤​នៃ​គ​.​ស​. (​កាល​ប្ប​ប្រវត្តិ​ចិន​) យើង​អាច​កត់សម្គាល់ថា យើង​ពុំ​ឃើញ​អត្ថបទ​ជា​លាយលក្ខណ៍អក្សរ​ស្តីពី​ពាក្យ​បណ្តាសា​នេះ​ទេ ទោះបីជា​ពាក្យ​នេះ​មាន​ប្រភព​ចេញពី​ប្រទេស​ឥណ្ឌា ហើយ​បាន​ហូរ​ចូល​ហ្វូ​-​ណន តាមរយៈ​ការផ្សព្វផ្សាយ​នៃ​លទ្ធិ​សាសនា​ធំៗ​ទាំងពីរ គឺ​ព្រហ្មញ្ញសាសនា និង​ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា​ក៏ដោយ​។ ក៏ប៉ុន្តែ បើ​យើង​យោងតាម​សិលាចារឹក ដែលមាន​ការចុះ​កាលបរិច្ឆេទ ក្រោយនេះ​បន្តិច ពោលគឺ សម័យ​អន្តរកាល​រវាង​នគរ​ភ្នំ និង​ចេនឡា យើង​អាច​និយាយ​យ៉ាង​ត្រឹមត្រូវ​ថា ប្រពៃណី​ប្រើពាក្យ​ដាក់​បណ្តាសា ពិតជា​កេរ្តិ៍ដំណែល​វប្បធម៌​មកពី​សម័យ​ហ្វូ​-​ណន ឬ​នគរ​ភ្នំ​យ៉ាង​ប្រាកដ​។​

Read More …

Posted by: | Posted on: August 16, 2014

Geopolitics right for future Cambodia in between China and Vietnam

Reading two articles and listening four hours Khmer Rouge history documentary these two days, I am keen to expose some inner preconception about best choice for Cambodian leadership in handling with foreign policy especially between China and Vietnam at the present.

CPP Comrades

Courtesy: Facebook

First article is the exclusive interview of the Khmer Time Magazine with German historian Bernd Schaefer who is expert on communist intelligence networks through his work on piling of reported documents archived on the file named Stasi Dossier while East Germany was close ally with Vietnam and Soviet during the cold war. Schaefer ever described many current Cambodian government leaders are former Vietnamese revolutionists and the report described characteristic of Heng Samrin and Chea Sim as true peasant-like leaders. The split of Sino-Soviet led to waging war at the border in 1969 triggered irk for Vietnam who has closely incorporated with China to topple the America. Thus, the geopolitics right in that time was Vietnam who suddenly decisively opened attack against Khmer Rouge and drove them away from Cambodia by installing their own government. Vietnam’s decision was noted that while Chinese leadership was having internal uncertainty regarding cultural revolution as well as visible weakness displayed by the Khmer Rouge’s internal dividing leadership, the attack happened spontaneously. However, the aggression happened during the early month of January was not paid attention by the western world as they were busy in celebrating new year eve and Christmas. To maintain its face, China opened attack Vietnam on the borderline 30 days later on February 17, 1979.

According to Schaefer, the history seems repeat itself as China and Vietnam is clumsy at each other at the present because of Spratley Island scheme. Between China and Vietnam, Cambodia must ensure that it chooses the geopolitics right.

Stasi files on Cambodia’s top officials – Southeast Asia Globe _ Southeast Asia Globe Magazine

KhmerTimes _ News Portal Cambodia _ _ Print Preview _ Why Did Vietnam Overthrow the Khmer Rouge in 1978_

 

vn burning china flag

Courtesy: Facebook

vn burning china flag1

Courtesy: Facebook

 

Second, screening the 583 pages titled “Kicking the Vietnam Syndrome in Cambodia“, his view is in parallel with Schaefer’s in term of geopolitics right. Impressively, during the fierce fighting between Thailand and Vietnam on an unsettled agreement to divide Cambodia land for their occupation, Thailand who was more powerful sent a legitimate Khmer King Ang Duong to the Cambodian throne in the expect to enlarge influence over Vietnam. However, the geopolitics changed as Western colonists were looking for new territories in this region including strong subconsciousness of King Ang Duong to free his land from both hegemony, his sovereign was admired in an attempt to welcome new comer like France to safeguard his territory.

Vickery 2010 on “Kicking Vietnam Syndrome in Cambodia”

 

Third, spending more than four hours while doing some chores and listening the youtube documentary broadcasted by RFA, it is understandable the remarkable demise of the Khmer kingdom under ultra nationalism, paranoid and xenophobic leadership of Pol Pot and his team. Comparing to Vietnam who experienced narrow space to move around after they defeated the America, but China shied away from them while Russia fought with both China and America, the prospect to maintain peace and unity of Northern and Southern Vietnam was so dim. So the decision to invade Cambodia is a one stone two birds action: good time to get more aids from Russia and waging a war than can unify the dividing fractions of Vietnam. More than this, King Ang Duong had no choice at all in using his own leverage to face with both Thailand and Vietnam. He was raised and educated in Bangkok since childhood. His returning back home was seen so fragile and disorganized. But opportunity arose as he worked hard to strengthen the country unity and secretly contact France if this colonist interested to be his nation guardian.

But Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot leadership and his team had everything in hand during their power. Pol Pot can easily court China and US to fight against Vietnam or achieve their ambition to reclaim Khmer Krom territory back. But this group is too bossy, disorganized, ultra nationalistic, ignorant, unproductive, xenophobic, and paranoid. Their management begun with displacing people from their own shelter in order to prey enemy or those suspected. The weakest point that Pol Pot lost their geopolitics right opportunity is the destroying of his own manpower. Leadership that take their own citizens as hostage and enemy is the worst management in the history of human kind.

A Social fabric

Courtesy: Facebook

So right now, after the agreement on 22 July 2014 between CNRP and CPP, the twilight for Cambodia strength on political management is the jewel to choose geopolitics right. While opposition has promised to perform as “Loyal Opposition”, the government must pursue political pragmatism and integrity to conduct in-dept reform. “National solidarity” and “Cambodian people first service” will enable “extra strength” to paddle this Cambodia ship in a right direction in between China and Vietnam.               

Posted by: | Posted on: August 7, 2014

The enemy of pragmatism from observing Cambodia politics

Listening to Nuon Chea’s speech in this video clip on facebook, he is critically out of date. His word cannot buy out the thought of Cambodian youth who are increasing to represent 70% of total 15 millions Cambodian population. Those are post-baby boomer generation, they are very pragmatic. They are not easily bought out by this low and xenophobic propaganda although they have perceived about this issue. The entrenched ideology could not be an excuse for such failed leadership of irresponsible crime against humanity. Contrarily, the mass killing and forceful displacement to allow local authority to punish and kills their own citizens is seen as the hidden scenario or modern political scientists called it “conspiracy”.

Achar Mean background

Achar Mien’s camouflage as Buddhist monk and story of many Vietnamese revolutionists who hide themselves in the saffron robes of Buddhism. Courtesy of Facebook by Mr. Jame

Nuon Chea’s speech showed an entrenched cowardice leadership. It will be disengaged by a new perspective at least they perceive those actions as a vague extremism and conspiracy agenda. Talking about this conspiracy theory, world renown undercover agents have been hiding under the skin of culture and tradition. We have learnt about the Christian missionaries who were working to draw map and make plan for powerful colonists to step in. During the post-cold war and the spread of communism ideology in Indochina, many Vietnamese worked on their way to hide their identity through wearing monk saffron robes. Their intelligence through becoming a monk is not only helping them to record adequate information, also helped them with free shelter and daily meal. Ho Chi Minh is known for his monkhood in Eastern Thailand of Ubon Rajathani. Achar Mien aka (fake name) Son Ngoc Minh ordained and enjoyed full mission as a Vietnamese revolutionist during his monkhood. Many Vietnamese revolutionists were believed to ordain in Cambodia soil and other places without knowing who they are. To be a Buddhist monk, they receive huge legitimate power and safest haven. This question should be a great topic for research for young Cambodian graduates.

There is a dangerous loophole for Cambodia as a nation on anticipating the root authenticity of each citizen because of untraceable last name.  Many countries have adopted permanent last name to track the family root and authenticate family members in the purpose to secure unfavorable hidden ill-will citizens as well as for medication tracking remedy. Cambodian government should consider on this scenario as well.

While the world has been carefully appreciate the convict of Nuon Chean and Khiev Somphan for the guilty they both have done during managing top down bureaucrats as crime against humanity to lifetime imprisonment, the Cambodian people are knowing very little about this. Through the report of Radio French Internation (RFI), the people who are bused to sit watching and listening the trial judgment seems don’t know who is Nuon Chea and who is Khiev Somphan. They said that during that terrible day, they know and remember the chief of commune, or chief of village, or chief of district, who took away their children and siblings to the killing machine.

Read More …

Posted by: | Posted on: August 6, 2014

Personal life and Cambodia politics through story telling

Mu SochuaReading The Advisor Cambodia today on “Mu Sochua: Protesting with poise”, it has triggered sadness, empathy, leadership and realization. Passing through the upheaval political landscape of Cambodia, the story telling of Mu Sochua has shaped new perspectives for Cambodians. The war and national division during these decades have absolutely embedded within all Cambodian memory regardless of farmers, labors, officials and politicians. Her story has encouraged all youths to continue their struggle for social change, justice and freedom.

All words and phrases mentioned in the interview, are thought-provoking. From her breastfeeding childhood to the latest injustice Prey Sor jailing, has simultaneously mixed the feeling of sadness and enjoyment. Life is like that, sometime we cried because of separation and pain, but sometime we cried because we are over-joyful. Sometime life is shaped by our own action (Kamma), but sometime life is shaped by circumstance or environment. However, the impact on life and its future shape wholly depends on our own inner strength and willpower. This reflects invaluable LEADERSHIP style we all should renew!

I would like invite all of you to read this outstanding life’s story telling: http://theadvisorcambodia.com/2014/08/mu-sochua-protesting-with-poise/

Posted by: | Posted on: August 3, 2014

Cambodia education exam policy and its irrelevance

“Through education, everything is possible”, this is a phrase I am daily heard at my work place as an employee at the Calgary Board of Education (CBE), a Western styled local education school board management. Each year, the board has produced huge market-oriented labors for this sprawling city and Canada country. Hence, their up-to-date curriculum and learning policy have been constantly revamped. At their first sentence for public opinion relating to curriculum adoption domain , the question is “How can curriculum remain relevant in an increasingly global and digital world?” to notify the public opinion to shape future of their children. Their education leadership is always posed at an outstanding performance as well.

Remarkably, the student success is not measured by their high score at final exam but by their assessment on effort (attendance), homework done and participation. All these are become accumulation of their yearly schooling scores. The school adopted competency-based education which measures student achievement through traditional on-site courses, online coursework, internships and paid employments, portfolios, and prior learning assessment (PLAs). This approach is the education diversification to welcome this new trend of economic diversification.

Regardless of relevant curriculum and outstanding leadership in education, the rampant corruption on K-12 exam each year is not yet resolved for Cambodia. The school exam bribery and cheating have been so pervasive in Cambodia.

don-bosco-phnom-penh-semester-exam-2014This 2014, thousands of Khmer students are entering into the exam rooms with different expectation of “no cheat, no exam leak, no corruption etc.” in according to the promise of new Education Minister, Dr. Hang Chuon Naron. But the lingering question is how could he achieve this mission in handling with human flaws of both his staffs and meager salary instructors? He also rejected the advise from NGOs on combining the exam scores with their two semesters schooling scores to decide student achievement, or at my understanding, this final exam is counted only 50% by allocating other 50% for students’ effort at school.

Lord Buddha said “Viriyena Dhukka Miccheti” or means “effort bring us success”. Civilized countries have adopted this theory completely by assessing students through their effort rather than through the few days strict test or exam.

All students are expected to pass the K-12 through their yearly schooling performance. The exam happened only through “entrance” which mean to enter into privilege universities or high required job positions etc. Why you judge Cambodian students’ competency through these few days strict exam? It is impossible to build pragmatic human resources for future Cambodia through strict exam. Myself and many friends have passed through this system at K-12 exam experience. We are sad on this continuing exam model. During my time, I was told the prospect of strict exam occurred on the reason of no chair (space) for university enrollment. Now, universities (both state and private) are mushrooming, the excuse of fearing no space for passed students to pursue their dream of higher education is not relevant any more.

By Sophoan Seng

10 January 1979 High School 10 January 1979 High School 1 10 January 1979 High School 2 10 January 1979 High School 3 10 January 1979 High School 4