Hierarchy of needs & fundamental human needs

Posted by: | Posted on: September 10, 2008

There are criticisms the research of Abraham Maslow associated “the issues of human needs”. Maslow elaborated the basic human needs categorize like a pyramid named “hierarchy of needs”. He divided into five categories from the most primitive needs to the least needs: 1. physiological (breathing, food, water, sex, homeostasis, excretion, sleep), 2. safety (security of body, of employment, of resources, of morality, of the family, of health, of property), 3. love/belonging (friendship, family, sexual intimacy), 4. esteem (self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others), 5. self-actualization (morality, creativity, spontaneity, problems solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts).

But according to some researchers such as Wahba and Bridgewell found little evidence for the ranking of needs Maslow described, or even for the existence of a definite hierarchy at all. Manfred Max-Neef criticized Maslow’s as there is no hierarchy at all for the human needs. He argued that “fundamental human needs” are non-hierarchical, and are ontologically universal and invariant in nature – part of the condition of being human; poverty, he argues, is the result of any one of these needs being frustrated, denied or unfulfilled. Manfred likely concluded that human needs defined by “satisfactoriness”.

Need Being (qualities) Having (things) Doing (actions) Interacting (settings)
subsistence physical and mental health food, shelter, work feed, clothe, rest, work living environment, social setting
protection care, adaptability, autonomy social security, health systems, work co-operate, plan, take care of, help social environment, dwelling
affection respect, sense of humour, generosity, sensuality friendships, family, relationships with nature share, take care of, make love, express emotions privacy, intimate spaces of togetherness
understanding critical capacity, curiosity, intuition literature, teachers, policies, educational analyse, study, meditate, investigate, schools, families, universities, communities,
participation receptiveness, dedication, sense of humour responsibilities, duties, work, rights cooperate, dissent, express opinions associations, parties, churches, neighbourhoods
leisure imagination, tranquillity, spontaneity games, parties, peace of mind day-dream, remember, relax, have fun landscapes, intimate spaces, places to be alone
creation imagination, boldness, inventiveness, curiosity abilities, skills, work, techniques invent, build, design, work, compose, interpret spaces for expression, workshops, audiences
identity sense of belonging, self-esteem, consistency language, religions, work, customs, values, norms get to know oneself, grow, commit oneself places one belongs to, everyday settings
freedom autonomy, passion, self-esteem, open-mindedness equal rights dissent, choose, run risks, develop awareness anywhere

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