Cambodia Education Reform

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Posted by: | Posted on: December 4, 2016

National Budget Plan 2017 of Cambodia Government to renew poor education reform

Political Paradigm of Pragmatism from the Khmer Youth part 87

Courtesy: NotEnoughGood

Courtesy: NotEnoughGood

This part (87), Mr. Sophan analysed on Budget Plan 2017 sent by the government of Cambodia for approval from the parliament. As he focused on poor engagement and low budget allocation to the Ministry of Education, the bamboo shoots of future old bamboos is just a useful rhetoric for Cambodia. His recommendations has covered large topic of child development.

From now on, Cambodian children should be taken care and infused following indicators to ensure they are truly young bamboo seeds for old bamboos:

  • Emotional maturity (ភាពចាស់ចិត្តចាស់គំនិត): students-centered pedagogy and allowing more space for children to play and learn from their own intuitive is better than to having teacher keep eyes on them as well as lead them in all time. Good teachers will teach students to seek knowledge by themselves by facilitating road-map for them. Schools of early childhood learning is exactly a playground. Children love to play, and they are grown up from such plays.
  • Social competence(សមត្ថភាពសង្គម): working as a team is imperative to imply in this real world, not a dream world. Cambodian schools are good in helping students to walk alone into the uncertainty of their future. Many times, this model has failed students to incorporate with others in achieving common goals, and conflicts as well as violence has always happened in Cambodian society because of lacking team-building. Many world’s important days and holidays of the nation, are good in calendar and students are likely forced to memorize them. But in developed countries, pre-school students, kindergarten to grade 5, are involving with those days by different classroom activities such as drawing, visualizing, photo-copying, imagining, analyzing, and school tripping to those sites etc. It it normal to hearing students take turn to speak on microphone about the daily schedule and reporting news during each important session of schooling. It is normal to see students take care other students and helping them with traffic etc.
  • Physical health and well-being(កាយពលនិងសុខមាលភាព): lacking nutrition and hygiene are one part, but school with no playground and community with no recreation center etc. are the most unaware by the government in bringing physical health, mental health, and well-being of the students.
  • Communication skills and general knowledge(កំរិតទំនាក់ទំនងគ្នាល្អនិងចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ): my personal experience from grade 12 has been a live memo as I couldn’t communicate anything useful with the outside world at all. I cannot apply my knowledge from school with the real world at all. I asked myself that as I was a number one student in classroom on both math and literature made me shy, none-confrontational, avoiding, and unproductive at work like this or what?
  • Language and cognitive development(ការអភិវឌ្ឍន៌ជំនាញភាសានិងបញ្ញាញាណ): in developed countries, students are encouraged to learn at least two languages. Many universities accept students with bilingual or multilingual only. Researches found ability to speak many languages assure students’ high competency.

Posted by: | Posted on: November 19, 2016

How Cambodia government invest in human capital?

Introduction:

Courtesy: NotEnoughGood

Courtesy: NotEnoughGood

National capitals to build a country are categorized by different perspectives but human capital, social capital, natural capital, and cash flow capital, have been broadly discussed by researchers and academics. Hence, human capital has been viewed as the most important means leading to sustainable development.

But Cambodia has been criticized on its lacking of political will to develop “human capital”.

History Snapshot:

The aura of cold war devastated Cambodia in all fields, and human capital which is one of the essential backbones of this nation has been nationwide ruined. Socially, the social bonding and trust have been disintegrated. Natural resources have been plundered by the elites. Educational system has significantly been raised up from zero spot to some level of political propaganda. The theory of the more learned persons teach the less learned persons are pervasively implemented. School infrastructures are not sufficient to the need of viable schooling environment. Curriculum is not up to date. Teaching pedagogy and teachers’ salary are not an incentive to produce human resource at all.

The Continuing Lie of Young Bamboo Seeds are future of Old Bamboos:

This saying is very popular in Cambodia among other national proverbs. But after the cold war, no one has ever thought of or had political will to put it into action. Cambodian children who are considered the young bamboo seeds have continually been exploited and spoiled to the core. The teaching of respecting and preserving tradition and culture have been indulgent to degrade other qualities of students such as social competency and emotional maturity. These downgrading are at the verge of severe students’ vulnerability. In Western education systems, children starting from kindergarten have been vastly taken care to ensure they grow up with citizenship ability and responsibility. Schools are central of students’ transformation than pacification in among those countries.

As I observed, a pre-school education system operating in Canada at a provincial schools level, a research finding found 1 in 3 of B.C. children start school vulnerable in one or more areas that are critical to their healthy development. As I have always participated in Parents Council Meeting of school that my kid is learning with, the debate on children nutrients are not in the agenda because with developed countries, children have been taken care very well in providing sufficient nutrients for their mental and physical growth.

Cambodia is in contrast, as major families are living with dire poverty, the diets for children are plainly dominantly rice with less or none nutritious food. Lacking hygiene is also a big causes of disease and abnormal growth of children. As these nutrients and hygiene are basic need for children to healthily grow up has not been prioritized by the government, other factors of education development are remained speechless. Thus, political influence has been pervasively undermining children growth within schools compounds. Beside of attempting to influence professionalism and independence to conduct proper teaching profession of the teachers, the pressure of their not-make-end-meet salary is one of the obstacles politics has taken over the growth of children.

From now on, Cambodian children should be taken care and infused following indicators to ensure they are truly young bamboo seeds for old bamboos:

  • Emotional maturity (ភាពចាស់ចិត្តចាស់គំនិត): students-centered pedagogy and allowing more space for children to play and learn from their own intuitive is better than to having teacher keep eyes on them as well as lead them in all time. Good teachers will teach students to seek knowledge by themselves by facilitating road-map for them. Schools of early childhood learning is exactly a playground. Children love to play, and they are grown up from such plays.
  •  Social competence(សមត្ថភាពសង្គម): working as a team is imperative to imply in this real world, not a dream world. Cambodian schools are good in helping students to walk alone into the uncertainty of their future. Many times, this model has failed students to incorporate with others in achieving common goals, and conflicts as well as violence has always happened in Cambodian society because of lacking team-building. Many world’s important days and holidays of the nation, are good in calendar and students are likely forced to memorize them. But in developed countries, pre-school students, kindergarten to grade 5, are involving with those days by different classroom activities such as drawing, visualizing, photo-copying, imagining, analyzing, and school tripping to those sites etc. It it normal to hearing students take turn to speak on microphone about the daily schedule and reporting news during each important session of schooling. It is normal to see students take care other students and helping them with traffic etc.
  •  Physical health and well-being(កាយពលនិងសុខមាលភាព): lacking nutrition and hygiene are one part, but school with no playground and community with no recreation center etc. are the most unaware by the government in bringing physical health, mental health, and well-being of the students.
  • Communication skills and general knowledge(កំរិតទំនាក់ទំនងគ្នាល្អនិងចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ): my personal experience from grade 12 has been a live memo as I couldn’t communicate anything useful with the outside world at all. I cannot apply my knowledge from school with the real world at all. I asked myself that as I was a number one student in classroom on both math and literature made me shy, none-confrontational, avoiding, and unproductive at work like this or what?
  • Language and cognitive development(ការអភិវឌ្ឍន៌ជំនាញភាសានិងបញ្ញាញាណ): in developed countries, students are encouraged to learn at least two languages. Many universities accept students with bilingual or multilingual only. Researches found ability to speak many languages assure students’ high competency.

Why Cambodia Government is Lacking Political Will in Education?

By looking at the budget allocating for Education from previous years, and the budget draft for this upcoming year of 2017, Education is likely not in priority for the government at all. According to VOA news, government draft law indicated increase 20.4 percent or 822 millions USD in Defence, Security and Public Order. While education and health sector are not sufficient. According H.E.Son Chhay, spending on Education is allocated 2.7 percent of total GDP (Gross Domestic Product) comparing to Vietnam is 5.5 percent, Indonesia is 4.5, and Thailand is 4.5 percent.

While Cambodia has obtained peace, the need on spending on arm-force is questionable while the needed sectors such education and health are not within government’s priority.

Posted by: | Posted on: December 20, 2015

Political Paradigm of Pragmatism from the Khmer Youth part 44

This part (44), Mr. Sophan Seng continued to analysis the wrong direction of education reform in Cambodia. As he repeatedly referred to, education is the backbone of this nation, but this

Scene view of Cambodia Students during Exam 2015 - photo courtesy of MoEYs facebooke page.

Scene view of Cambodia Students during Exam 2015 – photo courtesy of MoEYs facebooke page.

sector has been really neglected by the government. Beside of approving less annual budget for this sector, the intermingled family and community based educational development is remained a sensitive concern.

When the fame of education has become worse and worse, the measure to strictly undertake high school exam is just a short term and trivial measure to answer to the true reform, and this measure is seen as a political agenda, not the education agenda.
Just one stunning example of screening students at the entrance gate and proctoring from all directions by the proctors during exam, does mean to bog down the self-confidence and self-oriented mentality of the Cambodian students. Those screeners and proctors should spend time to monitor corrupt officers, traffic laws offenders, and other legal violators etc., is better.

Posted by: | Posted on: December 10, 2015

Political Paradigm of Pragmatism from the Khmer Youth part 43

This part (43), Mr. Sophan Seng continued to analyse the Education Reform in Cambodia. This time, he keenly criticized the measure of strict exam of high school students (grade 12) during 2014 and 2015. The strict exam was only aiming to divert the attention of students’ parents who have disappointed with the inability to curb the rampant corruption inside the school compounds particularly during exams. Thus, these two years strict exam doesn’t translate the “Education Reform”, but it has translated something else outside of the core reform.
Further more, the strict exam and measures to monitor all activities of students including scanning from toe to head to search students’ sheet(s) and proctor in each room by watching from all directions. Policemen are also dispatched. The other government unit such as Anti Corruption Unit (ACU) has also taken in charge to reprimand, arrest and punish those cheated during exam.
Scene view of Cambodia Students during Exam 2015 - photo courtesy of MoEYs facebooke page.

Scene view of Cambodia Students during Exam 2015 – photo courtesy of MoEYs facebooke page.

All these are just part of Cambodian education version that has no deep knowledge about the impact on students in a long term human resources building. Psychologically speaking, students have lost self-confidence that could help to produce self-correction and self-realization. Students are eagerly waiting others to enforce them. In term of law enforcement, students should not be the target. Those violated the traffic lights should be paid attention more than students who have learnt to gain knowledge, not to pass the exam without having knowledge.

This tactic of reform will not lead Cambodia to gain genuine reform but to serve the interest of political campaign. Cambodia’s education reform must not focus on strict exam, and strict exam should not use for the grade 12 exam, but it should be used for high professional competitions or privileged universities entrance etc.

Posted by: | Posted on: November 24, 2015

Political Paradigm of Pragmatism from the Khmer Youth part 42

This part (42), Mr. Sophan Seng continued to analyse on the Reform of Cambodia Education. After the wake of war, education has remained important factor for this country to leapfrog herself from post-cold war country to peace and developed country, or from revolutionary-socalled country to democracy country equipped by Rule of Laws and Fair Share of National Wealth according to sustainable development pragmatism.

Courtesy: Mu Sochua blog

Courtesy: Mu Sochua blog

Again, Mr. Sophan highly articulated on quality of education system and quality of school teachers. In Cambodia, besides of fundamental concept of “better knowledge persons to teach less knowledge person” has remained omnipresent presently existing in Cambodia modern school compounds, the teachers’ pedagogy is seen out-of-date omnipotently.

For instance, this likely pro-violence country has not yet trained teachers to be anti-violence agents at schools at all. Teachers, in Cambodian concept, they are the second parents of all Cambodian children. While children are affected by violence-parenting style of ingrained traditional home-raising parenthood, teachers are not well trained in handling domestic violence in schools at all.

Recent incident of a school teacher commanded a male student to unclothe a female student in front of the roommates in the way to punish her because of her inability to answer assignment question, is one of the thousand punishment ways Cambodian teachers have always used to teach them in schools.

This sexual violence is among other four domestic violences ie. physical violence, verbal violence, financial violence, and emotional violence. School teachers are not taught to handle with all these violences and most of time they are the violence perpetrator rather than a violence stopper/investigator/observer.

Those teachers are not different from public politician figures whose education credentials are not counted to getting their way into those important public servants and high prestigious public posts. As the matter of fact, Cambodia education has been mocked by the no education or less education persons have become a player of role model in the public eyes of Cambodian people. Currently, many top officials including Premier are not graduated high school. Currently, majority of teachers are counted by training teachers graduates, they have not completed post secondary education at all.

When this important strata of social fabric are remained weak, the future of Cambodia is deems murky.

Posted by: | Posted on: October 27, 2015

Political Paradigm of Pragmatism from the Khmer Youth part 41

This part (41), Mr. Sophan Seng continued to analyse on Education Reform in Cambodia. The critics by Opposition Leader, Mr. Sam Rainsy, on the weakness of Cambodia education has been viewed differently according to the government’s responses. In reality, Cambodia education has faced many shortcomings such as school infrastructure, livable wage for teachers, up-to-date curriculum, and accreditation etc. Cambodian graduates regardless High School or Post Secondary, have not been endorsed by Asian nations or having equivalency with them.

Cambodia High school exam 2015 3In term of practical knowledge, his high school graduation as example could not enable himself to face up with the external world. He was taught overwhelmingly on academics but not citizenship, social adaptation, and leadership skills at all. Schooling for Cambodian future generation should not just focus on reading and writing Khmer language, or knowing math; but students can apply those knowledge in the real world.

On the other hand, the rebuttal from minister of MOEYs and Prime Minister Hun Sen, has been seen as self-defense rather than to accepting the reality and adjust the shortcomings accordingly.