now browsing by month
Contrasting to my personal experience in public education in Cambodia, I would like to dedicate this article to reflect on “leadership in education” in Cambodia with local management of Calgary Board of Education (CBE) for its 2010-2011 Mega-End Initiative.
I was graduated grade 12 in 1993 in a school of downtown Siem Reap. As a son of farmer family in remote area, I struggled with all obstacles to realize my dream of “education education education”. While my favorite subject was Math, I was keen in Khmer and writing. However, like many other students, I had to learn from tutoring teachers at his private classroom focusing on Math, Biology, Chemistry and Physic. Academic learning was 99% covering in both classroom and private paid tutoring. In the schedule, there were few hours per week for Gym in which I rarely participated in the exercise training and it was frequently cancelled. All students required to fulfill all subjects in classroom such as Khmer, English, French, Literature, Mores, History, Geography, Philosophy, Math, Biology, Chemistry and Physic. These subjects are mandatory, no elective courses were offered. My teacher(s) directly delivered the course on his/her expert or training experience during my high school. I observe that I must remember those subjects like parroting to what teacher(s) said.
From my high school period of this 20 years, there have been little reforming on curriculum in Cambodia particularly on the level of compulsory public school education. In term of academic learning, I have seen some inserting new subjects such as social study and pure science into the existing curriculum.
For Calgary Board Education (CBE), it has updated its curriculum almost every year to substantiate its planned goal. For its 2010-2011, it reached a solution to implement a mega learning leadership by ratifying so-called “Mega-Ends” learning approach. Within that framework, academic learning success of students is just part of its goal for students to achieve Citizenship, Personal Development and Character. While Academic Success is the top of the foundation, Personal Development is the base, Citizenship and Character are the two essential wings.
On its instruction for Report Card to each student and parent about their semester learning success, teachers are advised:
Citizenship in learning:
- Exercises democratic rights and responsibilities within the learning community
- Demonstrates respect and appreciation for diversity
- Works and communicates effectively with others
Citizenship: Each student will be a responsible citizen by being an informed and involved member in his or her local, national and global communities.
Personal Development through learning:
- Sets and works towards learning goals
- Demonstrates confidence and autonomy in learning
Personal Development: Each student will acquire the skills, attitudes and knowledge to achieve personal highest potential.
ជាទូទៅប្រជាជនខ្មែរយើងរមែងដឹងអំពីសីលប្រាំសំរាប់ការរស់នៅប្រចាំថៃ្ង ប៉ុនែ្តការយល់និងការបដិបត្តិអោយបានជ្រាល ជ្រៅ នៅមានកំរិតនិងមន្ទិលសង្ស័យនៅឡើយ។
សីលប្រាំចាត់ទុកជាតំលៃខាងសីលធម៌មូលដ្ឋានរបស់មនុស្សជាតិ។ ព្រះពុទ្ធជាម្ចាស់ទ្រង់ទទួលស្គាល់ថាសីលប្រាំមិនត្រូវ បាននរណាបង្កើតទេ គឺវាមានមកដោយធម្មជាតិរបស់វានៅក្នុងចក្រវាឡនេះ។ ព្រះពុទ្ធគ្រប់ព្រះអង្គដែលបានបដិសន្ធិនៅ ក្នុងលោកយើងនេះ រមែងអោយតំលៃខ្ពស់ទៅលើសីលប្រាំថាជាតំរូវការមូលដ្ឋានសំរាប់សុវត្ថិភាពសង្គមនិងសុខមាលភាព របស់មនុស្សជាតិ។
យុគសម័យពិភពលោកបច្ចុប្បន្ន សីលប្រាំត្រូវបានគេបកស្រាយថាជាសិទ្ធិមនុស្ស តំលៃសីលធម៌ខាងសង្គម ធាតុផ្សំនយោ បាយសំរាប់សមភាពសង្គម និងការអភិវឌ្ឍន៏ប្រកបដោយចិរភាព។
បន្ថែមលើការបកស្រាយខាងលើ សីលទីមួយអំពីការជៀសវាងការធ្វើទុក្ខបុកម្នេញនិងការសំឡាប់សត្វមានជីវិត គឺត្រូវគ្នា ជាចំបងទៅនឹងការប្រកាសជាសាកលស្តីអំពីសិទ្ធិមនុស្សរបស់អង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិក្នុងខណះពេលដែលការប្រកាសជា សាកលនេះត្រូវបានប្រទេសរីកចំរើនជាច្រើនយកទៅអនុវត្តសំរាប់សមភាពនៃការអភិវឌ្ឍន៏ទាំងផ្នែកសង្គម សេដ្ឋកិច្ចនិង នយោបាយ បណ្តាសហគ្រាសឯកជនក៏បានយកសិទ្ធិមនុស្សនេះមកប្រើដោយមើលការខុសត្រូវបុគ្គលិករបស់គេតាម គោលការណ៍ជាក់ស្តែង។ ជាឧទាហរណ៍ដូចជាបុគ្គលិកទាំងអស់មានឋានៈស្របច្បាប់ក្នុងការទទួលបានការឈប់ពេល ឆ្លងទនេ្លឬថែទាំកូន ការឈប់សំរាកឬការឈឺស្កាត់ដោយទទួលបានប្រាក់បំណាច់ និងផលប្រយោជន៍ដ៏ទៃផ្សេងទៀត ជាច្រើន។
រាប់ចាប់ពីសីលទីមួយដល់សីលទីប្រាំ សីលទាំងអស់នោះគឺជាអង្គប្រកបយ៉ាងសំខាន់ជាងគេមួយក្នុងការទប់ស្កាត់ នូវរាល់ទង្វើរំលោភបំពានមានដូចជាការរំលោភបំពានផ្លូវកាយ ផ្លូវសំភារៈលុយកាក់ ផ្លូវភេទ ផ្លូវវាចា និងផ្លូវចិត្ត។ ឧទាហរណ៍ ការរក្សាសីលទីមួយ វៀរចាកការធ្វើទុក្ខបុកម្នេញនិងសំឡាប់អ្នកដ៏ទៃ បុគ្គលនោះអាចគ្រប់គ្រងអំពើ ខ្លួនឯងចេញផុតពីការរំលោភផ្លូវកាយ ការរក្សាសីលទីពីរ វៀរចាកការលួចប្លន់ បុគ្គលនោះអាចគ្រប់គ្រងអំពើខ្លួន ឯងចេញផុតពីការរំលោភផ្លូវសំភារៈលុយកាក់ ការរក្សាសីលទីបី វៀរចាកពីការប្រព្រឹត្តខុសផ្លូវកាម បុគ្កលនោះអាច គ្រប់គ្រងអាកប្បកិរិយាខ្លួនឯងចេញផុតពីគាររំលោភបំពានផ្លូវភេទសេពសន្ទវៈ ការរក្សាសីលទីបួន វៀរចាកការនិយាយ កុហកនិងញុះញង់គេ បុគ្គលនោះអាចគ្រប់គ្រងអាកប្បកិរិយារបស់ខ្លួនគេចផុតពីការរំលោភបំពានផ្លូវវាចា និងការរក្សា សីលទីប្រាំ វៀរចាកការសេពគ្រឿងញៀននិងផឹកទឹកស្រវឹង បុគ្គលនោះអាចគ្រប់គ្រងខ្លួនឯងចេញផុតពីការរំលោភបំពាន ផ្លូវចិត្តទៅលើអ្នកដ៏ទៃ។
Buddha promoted middle path for the attainment of Enlightenment. Worldly speaking, it is a middle path for social, political and economic development. In the past, the world experienced extremism in its political development such as so-called divine monarchic absolutism or secular authoritarianism. New moderate political system is liberal democracy in which it is believed to evolving from past stigma and intractable conflicts. This system is considered hybridizing or blending for the success of human endeavor.
Panca Sila or Five Precepts for Nation Development
In general, Cambodian people will be aware of Panca Sila or Five Precepts in their daily livelihood, but their understanding and practicing of these precepts are somehow skeptical.
Five Precepts are considered fundamental moral value of all beings. The Buddha himself accepted that no one created these precepts; they have naturally existed within this universe. Every Buddha in this universe will value these Five Precepts as basic need for social security and well being of mankind.
In modern world, Five Precepts have interpreted into human rights, social norm of moral value, political substance for fairness, and sustainable development.
Further to above interpretation, the first precept of avoiding harming and killing of other beings preliminarily coincided with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations. While this declaration has been used by many civilized countries for the fairness of social, political and economic development, the private corporations have also adopted human rights to treat their employees in a durable manner. For instance, the employees are entitled to receive parental or maternity leave, vacation pay, sick leave and other various benefits.
From the first to fifth precept, they are the best premises to handling with all types of abuses including physical, financial, sexual, verbal and emotional abuses. For instance, by observing the first precept to avoid harming and killing, one can cope with their action of physical abuses; by observing second precept of avoiding from stealing, one can cope with their action of financial abuses; by observing the third precept of abstaining from sexual misconduct, one can cope with their behavior of sexual abuses; by observing fourth precept of abstaining from telling lie and cheating, one can cope with their behavior of verbal abuses; and by observing the fifth precept of abstaining from addicting to drugs and alcohol, one can cope with their behavior of mental abuses.
|The 5th Annual Khmer Studies Forum (KSF) will be held at Ohio University, in Athens, Ohio, U.S.A. on Friday, March 15, Saturday, March 16, and Sunday, March 17, 2013.The 5th KSF has as its theme “identity”: e.g., What is a Khmer? Who is Khmer? How is Khmerness recognized or expressed? How has Khmerness changed over time? We anticipate presentations representing a range of disciplines and approaches.The KSF provides an opportunity to facilitate discussion on topics including but not limited to Khmer language, history, culture, economics, politics, education, and the arts. Faculty, students and community members are invited to participate. Participation in the Khmer Studies Forum is free. The KSF is hosted and organized by the Center for Southeast Asian Studies at Ohio University, with primary support from the Ohio Humanities Council and Arts for Ohio, with additional support from the Center for International Studies, the E.W. Scripps School of Journalism, IARTS, and the Contemporary History Institute.|
|Dr. Sophal Ear, Department of National Security Affairs, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School|
|Dr. Sophal Ear is an Assistant Professor of National Security Affairs at the US Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. His research focuses on post-conflict reconstruction, stability, transition, democratization, the political economy of governance, foreign aid, development, and growth in Southeast Asia in general and Cambodia in particular. Dr. Ear serves on the Advisory Board of the Master of Development Studies Program at the Royal University of Phnom Penh, the Editorial Board of the International Public Management Journal, and the Editorial Review Board of the Journal of Southeast Asian American Education & Advancement. He has been honored as a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum, and in 2011 was elected to a five-year term membership on the Council on Foreign Relations. His most recent book is The Hungry Dragon: How China’s Resource Quest is Reshaping the World (Routledge, 2013), co-authored with Sigfrido Burgos Cáceres.Dr. Ear will present a talk on Aid Dependence in Cambodia: How Foreign Assistance Undermines Democracy, a book he authored in 2012 (Columbia Unversity Press).For more information on Dr. Ear, visit http://sophalear.com/|