There are criticisms the research of Abraham Maslow associated “the issues of human needs”. Maslow elaborated the basic human needs categorize like a pyramid named “hierarchy of needs”. He divided into five categories from the most primitive needs to the least needs: 1. physiological (breathing, food, water, sex, homeostasis, excretion, sleep), 2. safety (security of body, of employment, of resources, of morality, of the family, of health, of property), 3. love/belonging (friendship, family, sexual intimacy), 4. esteem (self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others), 5. self-actualization (morality, creativity, spontaneity, problems solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts). Continue reading “Hierarchy of needs & fundamental human needs”
- Quantitative and qualitative research constitute different approaches to social investigation and carry with them important epistemological and ontological consideration.
- Theory can be depicted as something that precedes research (as in quantitative research) or as something that emerges out of it (as in qualitative research).
- Epistemological considerations loom large in considerations of research strategy. To a large extent, these revolve around the desirability of employing a natural science model (and in particular positivism) versus interpretivism.
- Ontological considerations, concerning objectivism versus constructionism, also constitute important dimensions of the quantitative/qualitative contrast.
- Value may impinge on the research process at different times.
- Practical considerations in decisions about research methods are also important factors.
- Feminist researchers have tended to prefer a qualitative approach, though there is some evidence of a change of viewpoint in this regard.
Phnom Penh was named after the complete building of mountain dedicated to Don Penh who were the senior devoted Buddhist initiated to worship the important Buddhas consecrated on the top of this mountain. This Cambodian latest capital significantly attracted by its view in the conjunction of four main rivers: Upper Mekong, Lower Mekong, Thonle Sap, and Thonle Basak. It also appeals by the stylizing of French legacy which once called “the pearl of Asia” in same time of Saigon.
If you have chance to visit Phnom Penh, I suggest to go early morning to see the sun rise in front of the Royal Palace. Boomingly, many Phnom Penhians prefer to exercise early morning gathering with many different groups. They run, walk, dance and play. Music is lullabying amid morning dew ground and dawn sky.
Pigeons are flockingly exercising with hundreds of people. The sun gradually appears while the dark quickly dispelled. The red beam beautifully reflects the red tile roof of the palace exhibits the canvas of neatly painting. Many peoples eagerly open their eyes to stare at the soft morning sun. If you were sitting here, you must feel so incredible great to chill yourself under the smoke of morning dew with the light beautiful rising sun appearing from the water.
Before roads flooded by jammed vehicles, this esoteric morning atmosphere surely provides you the fresh air breathing deep into lung to appreciate with further achievement of your new day.
|Written by Sophan Seng|
|Thursday, 04 September 2008|
Many observers have assumed current transitional Cambodian politics will gradually become mature. But I believe this is an obscure statement. If we say the tendency of Cambodian politics is towards maturity within a cave of immaturity, this might be more plausible. However, what we cannot fathom is: How bad is this cave?
Some Cambodian people and major incumbent Cambodian politicians will, not reluctantly, concur that they are very glad as a result of many new emerging things that they didn’t have during the Pol Pot period. This statement is logical, but even wise people might not see that it is still important to develop Cambodia’s political maturity.
Pol Pot came to power with the intention of restructuring Cambodian society to build a new, utopian, agrarian society. The regime’s approach has become globally recognised as “year zero”. So how wise and good can we be when the present emerging development is pragmatically compared to the “year zero” of Pol Pot? Anything now is socially, economically, politically unmatched to those of the Khmer Rouge regime.
The current Cambodian hybrid Khmer Rouge trial has solemnly proclaimed its primary mission is to enhance national reconciliation, to help heal Cambodians’ [Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)], and to eliminate the culture of impunity. Cambodian people should not be easily exploited by the politically orchestrated attempt to disfavour the Khmer Rouge and favour the so-called Khmer Rouge liberators. In reality, we should try and achieve some insight and understanding of the fact that while the Khmer Rouge were communist, the Vietnamese who liberated us from the Khmer Rouge were also communist. They both are communist by origin. Contemporary Cambodian politicians and people have to protect themselves from both of these two disadvantaged political influences with the overall intention of truly democratising Cambodia, developing ourselves to appreciate this new political trend and nourishing the maturity of political leaders and their followers.
Regarding the political parties, no distinction can be made between government party and opposition party. These two national political parties are interdependent and inseparable. The Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) can legitimise themselves in front of the Cambodian people as well as international communities because of the Sam Rainsy Party. Similarly, the Sam Rainsy Party can have a stage to test the weaknesses and strength of their future leadership, or that of the CPP. For example, their current legal movement to reject the result of election was a brave performance.
The Cambodian people, both old and young, are observers, referees and owners of this social contract. They should not be careless and allow an imbalance of power between government and opposition to continue to happen. If such an imbalance is not dangerous per se, it is surely not compatible with the principle of liberal democracy.
Ph.D student of political science
University of Hawaii at Manoa