Sampling Strategies

Key Points:

  • Probability sampling is a mechanism for reducing bias in the selection of samples.
  • Ensure you become familiar with key technical terms in the literature on sampling such as: representative sample; random sample; non-response; population; sampling error; etc.
  • Randomly selected samples are important because they permit generalizations to the population and because they have certain known qualities.
  • Sampling error decreases as sample size increases.
  • Quota samples can provide reasonable alternatives to random samples; but they suffer from some deficiencies.
  • Convenience samples may provide interesting data, but it is crucial to be aware of their limitations in terms of generalizability.
  • Sampling and sampling-related error are just two sources of error in social survey research.

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Pride or shame ?

Tuol Sleng Museum applies for registration with Unesco intrigued the question that this initiative will bring shame or pride to Cambodian people? If we check in the listing numbers of world cultural heritages subscribed by Unesco, we seem not see any genocidal or brutal place being put as World Heritage. But if Cambodia can achieve her purpose to register Tuol Sleng Museum with Unesco, it would be possibly questionable to the intent of this orientation.

Conceivably, many foreign visitors have always laid their expectation when they visit Cambodia: to experience the well-known greatness of Angkor Wat and the horrible notorious legacy of Khmer Rouge. Weighting these two expectations rationally reflect the pride and shame of Cambodia. The reputation of Angkor Wat highly honors the Cambodian people in the past, present and future. But the legacy of Khmer Rouge and Tuol Sleng prisoners’ camp ambiguously construes Cambodian people.

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The Nature of Quantitative Research

Key Points:

  • Quantitative research can be characterized as a linear series of steps moving from theory to conclusion, but the process described is an ideal type from which there are many departures.
  • The measurement process entails the search for indicators.
  • Establishing the reliability and validity of measures is important for assessing their quality.
  • Can be characterized as exhibiting certain preoccupations, the most central of which are: measurement, causality; generalization; and replication.
  • It has been subjected to many criticisms by qualitative researchers. These criticisms tend to revolve around the view that a natural science model is inappropriate for studying the social world.

Questions for Review:

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The Pursuit of Happiness

Abstract

The pursuit of happiness has been critical in human society. Essentially, many scholars have explored and defined it in various approaches. Some are theoretical, some are empirical, and some are practical.  Abraham Maslow has been considered the father of humanistic psychology and well-known for his conceptualization of a “hierarchy of human needs”.  But Manfred Max Reef, a Chilean economist and philosopher has argued the fundamental human needs are non-hierarchical, and ontologically universal and invariant in nature. Neuroscientist Professor Richard Davidson in Wisconsin University found the truth in his experimental lab about “the pursuit of happiness” persuasively spread worldwide. The three scholars tirelessly demonstrated their belief to address happiness for human beings.

This paper searches the correlation findings of these three scholars in comprehending fundamental needs of human being, handling with life, and pursing happiness. The methodology is epistemologically and qualitatively conducting. Four stages will be attentively debated; generalization the discovery each of these three scholars, comparative reflection of their studies, religious perspectives on happiness, and meditation as a tool.

This study might not able to offer the complete answer of “the pursuit of happiness”, but at least it can provide insightful perspectives of life explained by these three well-known scholars. In complimenting this, the philosophy and practice of meditation will be partly addressed. Meditation is a tool, mentioned by Professor Richard Davidson, to achieve his lab research on the question “what is happiness?”

Summary:

Abraham Maslow categorized basic human needs the most primitive needs to the least needs such as physiological, safety, love or belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. But Manfred Max-Neef criticized Maslow’s as there is no hierarchy at all for the human needs; and he suggested “satisfactoriness” as the main manifestation to happiness. Richard Davidson in his experimental lab found that matured, experienced monks in practicing meditation are full of happiness. This research tries to take in light of those three discoveries without inserting any criticism or recommendation.

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