Cambodia School exam
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ប្រឡងបាក់ឌុបឆ្នាំនេះជាប់៦២,១៨ភាគរយ ហើយក៏មានក្មួយខ្ញុំម្នាក់ដែរ។ និយាយដោយត្រង់ចង់សួរថា តើក្រសួងអប់រំរៀបចំយ៉ាងម៉េចចំពោះអ្នកមិនជាប់ជាង៤៧ភាគរយទៀត? អោយពួកគេរៀនឌុប? អោយពួកគេធ្វើចំណាកស្រុុកទៅស្រុកថៃ? ឬអោយពួកគេដើរទាត់ខ្យល់? ។ល។និង។ល។ជាដើម។ អ្នកជាប់ក្រៅពីមិនបានរៀនឌុប ក៏មិនប្រាកដថាគេអាចគេចផុតពីគន្លងអ្នកធ្លាក់ដែរ។ តែអ្វីដែលហួសចិត្តគឺពិភពលោកគេមិនអនុវត្តការប្រឡងជាប់ធ្លាក់(exam)ដើម្បីវាស់សមត្ថភាពកូនសិស្សទៀតទេ តែគេប្រើវិធីស្ទាបស្ទង់កំរិតព្យាយាម(assessment) របស់សិស្សវិញ។ បើកូនសិស្សព្យាយាមសិក្សាពេញលេញ គឺពួកគេមិនដែលធ្លាក់ទេក្នុងរយះពេល១២ឆ្នាំ។ ហើយប្រទេសប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ គេមិនយកការប្រឡងជាប់ធ្លាក់ដើម្បីវាស់ចំណេះដឹងកូនសិស្សទេ ព្រោះគេជឿទៅលើផ្នត់គំនិតព្យាយាម(growth mindset) ជាងផ្នត់គំនិតឆ្លាតពីកំណើត(fixed mindset)។ លើសពីនេះ កម្ពុជាមិនអាចមានចិរភាពខាងការអភិវឌ្ឍន៌ទេ បើរដ្ឋាភិបាលនៅតែប្រើគោលនយោបាយបែបសង្គមបិទ(not an open society)និងការរើសអើង(exclusive)។ យើងអាចពិនិត្យទៅលើគោលនយោបាយរើសអើង(exclusive)និងគោលនយោបាយមិនរើសអើង(inclusive) តាមកត្តាខ្លះៗដូចតទៅនេះ៖
- នយោបាយដឹកនាំប្រទេស=គណបក្សនយោបាយដឹកនាំរដ្ឋាភិបាលកំណត់គោលនយោបាយដែលមានតែខ្លួនម្នាក់គត់ដែលអាចរក្សាសន្តិភាពនិងការអភិវឌ្ឍន៌ដោយចាត់ទុកក្រុមជំទាស់ដែលមានកំឡាំងប្រហាក់ប្រហែលខ្លួនថាជាក្រុមបំផ្លាញសន្តិភាពនិងការអភិវឌ្ឍន៌ ព្រមទាំងខិតខំអុកឡុកអោយក្រុមនេះរលាយខ្លួនតែម្តង។
- ពិធីកម្មរដ្ឋ=រាល់ការរៀចបំវេទិការផ្សេងៗ រមែងអោយអ្នកបំរើរាស្រ្តអង្គុយខ្ពស់ជាងរាស្ត្រម្ចាស់ប្រទេស។ ការធ្វើដំណើររបស់អ្នកមានអំណាចរមែងអុកឡុកផ្លូវចរាចររបស់រាស្ត្រ។ កំរាលព្រំក្រហមគួរអោយរាស្ត្រជាអ្នកដើរលើវិញ មិនមែនសំរាប់អ្នកបំរើរាស្ត្រទេ។ រាល់សមិទ្ធផលនានាគឺជាសមិទ្ធិផលរបស់រាស្ត្រ មិនមែនរបស់អស់លោកអ្នកមានអំណាចដែលចិញ្ចឹមជីវិតដោយប្រាក់បៀរ៌វត្សន៌ដែលរាស្ត្រប្រគល់អោយទេ។ សិស្សដែលទទួលបានពិន្ទុអាដ៏ច្រើនសន្ធឹកសន្ធាប់គឺចំនួន៤០៥នាក់ឆ្នាំនេះនឹងត្រូវទទួលរង្វាន់ជាតិ មិនមែនរង្វាន់ពីអ្នកបំរើជាតិជានីតិបុគ្គលទេ។
- គម្លាតសង្គមនិងសង្រ្គាមស្មារតី=គម្លាតសេដ្ឋកិច្ចគ្រួសារនៃប្រជាពលរដ្ឋខ្មែរនៅតែជាសាហេតុធំដែលមានការប្រឆាំងគ្នារវាងអ្នកមាននិងអ្នកក្រ អ្នកក្រុងនិងអ្នកជនបទ ហើយសង្រ្គាមស្មារតីទាំងនេះរមែងនាំទៅរកហានីយភ័យសង្គមខ្ពស់។
Grade 12 high school exam this year passed 61.18% including one of my nephews. Actually, I want to question Ministry of Education on how they plan to help those more 47% failed students? Planning them to learn one year more? To migrate to work in Thailand? Or to be unemployed? Except no need to relearn again, those passed students shall tread in the same path as those failed students. To what I am so obsessed about is that the world is not using this method of exam to measure students’ competency any more, the world has used assessment method indeed. If students have used all perseverance during these 12 years, they shall be surely passed. And democratic countries don’t use exam as parameter to measure students’ competency because they do believe in growth mindset, not the fixed mindset.
More than this, Cambodia shall not afford sustainable development as government has pursued policy of “not an open society” and “exclusive”. We can investigate the policy of “exclusive” and “inclusive” with following indicators:
- Governing Politics=Government-led party has affirmed its policy by stating that only this party can maintain peace and development of the nation by excluding key opposition party with accusation that this party is a key actor of destroying peace and development; and put much effort to curb this party aiming to dissolve it eventually.
- Planned Economy of Free Market of Crony Capitalism=to conduct free market economy but only close patrons and loyalists can run businesses and present a bid.
- Absence of Universal Suffrage Election=election that has excluded millions of voter unable to access to it, for instance the excluding of Cambodians overseas to register to vote and to vote.
- Fixed Mindset Education System=they should take students’ portfolio during their study of 12 years as a parameter to measure their growth and knowledge, not these few days exam.
- Government’s Rites/Functions=all public forums have always arranged the people’s servants to sit higher than the people. Each trip of the people’s servants has always interrupted the traffic of the people. All public goods are belonged to the people, not the people’s servants who are making a family living from salary afforded to offer by the people. Those excellent grade A students should receive the honour of national gift, not the gift of any people’s servant as an individual citizen.
- Social Gap and War of Spirit=family economy and social gap have remained a main cause of conflicts between the rich and the poor, the city dwellers and the farmers, and these war of spirit has become source of high social crisis for Cambodia.
This year is signified by its second attempt of education’s dictatorial regime of Cambodia to strictly monitor the exam’s session for high school students nationwide (watch video clip by RFA).
There are more than 87,000 candidates have lined up in different 150 exam centers to enter into 3576 restricted exam rooms. The nation’s budget is spent not less than 4 millions dollar to attain the two days nationwide exam on August 25-26, 2015.
Cambodia has been well-known of rampant corruption accounting from officers’ offices to school compounds. Urging to topple the school’s bribery and corruption regime, the new measure of dictatorial monitoring during exam has been taken place. The monitoring methods are incorporated by Anti-Corruption United (ACU) to dispatch exam monitors to inspect and to spook all entering students. The exam agents are scavenging hiding sheets under their pants, or sleeves, or inside their shoes etc. Exam monitors also walked around the rooms, the tables, and espy from all directions during the exam. Policemen are also dispatched to monitor the students as well.
This is weird scene looking from outsiders when they are recalling their high school exam experiences. Regardless to mention Western countries, Cambodia’s neighboring Thailand, their exam environment didn’t translate students’ confidence into hostility at all. Beside of well reform in education through fiscal transparency and increasing budget allocation towards the demands of schools especially to increase teacher’s decent salary, the curriculum and learning environment, all are conducive and incentive to students to grab knowledge at their maximum without grabbing the feeling of hostility.
The attendance, the effort, and the scores of yearly accumulation, all are included into students’ portfolio. The exam has been happened for students to fulfill their learning representing about 30 to 40 percent only at the year end. Strangely, Cambodian students’ portfolio has not been included. Their whole year effort is badly excluded. They are counted only two days exam. If they passed, they are happy; but if they are failed, they are sad. Many of them have given up schools without fulfilling their dream to step up tertiary education.
This has been seen as dictatorial and extreme policy for Cambodian high school students to bring with them confidence after 12 years compulsory enrollment.
Cambodian students who are lining up to enter into the rooms of fame (exam rooms) with confusing feeling of working hard 365 days is likely meaningless for them because they have to fight for homestretch in just these two days.
Those students are competing in two days to pass the exam. It seems Cambodia is good in setting up a competitive stage by dispatching thousand monitor agents (arbitrators) to believe in fairness but not the ability of the players themselves. The high school students (players) have been poorly trained within the schools’compound to prepare the facing up with those alien arbitrators. The students are believed to force to walk on broken glass.
How about Cambodia’s competitiveness with outsiders? Hard to speak about it for sure!