Boss and Leader in Khmer Context and Western Perception

Introduction

There is no clear definition to explain the different between BOSS and LEADER in Khmer language. Usually, Khmer people call their upper authority in different words such as “boss មេ”, “owner ចៅហ្វាយនាយ”, “manager អ្នកចាត់ការ”, “chief លោកនាយក”, “president លោកប្រធាន”, “leader អ្នកដឹកនាំ”. While boss, owner, manager, chief, or president, have been daily used referring to first and second person, leader is likely more into third person. With this context, “boss” has been used by English speakers referring to first and second person as well, while “leader” in more into third person.

Beside these direct words to call upper authority, Khmer language has diverse terms referring to “leader” such as “Prime Minister នាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រី”, “King ព្រះរាជា”, and “Abbot ចៅអធិការ”.

​”boss មេ”​​​ and “leader អ្នកដឹកនាំ” in Khmer historical context

During Angkorean period, Kamarateng anh, or kamaratang anh had been popularly used, according to old khmer and inscriptions, to describe “boss” or “leader”. Though, these words have evolved into “kamdaeng anh”, or “ah pdaeng” in present day use, these lexicons have not been used like intended before.

Boss or Me/Mae refers to vertical authoritative individuals in social structure such as village chief, commune chief, district chief, and provincial chief. It has deeply embedded within all ranks of vertical leadership in both civilian and armed forces ranking. By practice, Khmer term of this boss is at the same interpretation of Boss vs Leader in Western world.

Leader or Me Deuk Noam/Neak Deuk Noam has also embedded within vertical leadership of Cambodian political culture. It is not that popular like Boss or Me in Cambodian society. After the election sponsored by the United Nations in 1993, the demonstrators have inclusively called for leadership change or Pdo Pdo. This new term appeal has signified the less usage in the past and also trumped up new concept from those younger generation.

From past to present, Cambodian leadership has been inclined into sacred in state of nature, cult of personality, belief in reincarnation authority, and backing by foreign states. A prolific leader who has attracted most Cambodian people and outside observers is King Norodom Sihanouk. He was influenced by Western culture and leadership. He has jumped out from the cult of personality who sitting on the throne to watch people kneeling, by walking through the crowd, shaking hand, hugging and kissing to every greeting citizen. His this new transformation of leadership gained him huge population support. He has also switched his leadership from Monarch to Prime Minister, and to Monarch again for what he called this a second Kingdom during the UNTAC-sponsored election in Cambodia.

His leadership style is mixed by personal performance, social norm and new wave of acceptance, and the transformation of personality leadership. He is more into charismatic leadership than servant leadership and intelligent leadership. If people can call him directly, they might call him “Boss” than “Leader”. Younger generation who has pursued his style of Leadership is no one else, the Cambodia current Prime Minister Hun Sen.

Boss vs Leader in Western World

There are at least 12 factors to characterize leadership or a good leader such as “focus on team interests and needs, inspiration, integrity, clear goals, good example, vision, clear communication, expect the best, supportive, encouragement, recognition, and stimulating work”.

But below clips are more about Boss vs Leader that everyone must take a look.

boss vs leader 12 boss vs leader 11 boss vs leader 10 boss vs leader 9

 

Continue reading “Boss and Leader in Khmer Context and Western Perception”

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Leadership skills are built by how much government take care children and family

Resolve to be tender with the young, compassionate with the aged, sympathetic with the striving and tolerant with the weak and wrong. Sometime in your life, you will have been all of these.” – Lord Buddha

2015-02-09 11.30.43Last time I wrote about “Leadership is about empowering children“, today I would like to digest on how democratic, developed and civilized countries have prioritized on family foundation and children guardianship policy. One of those countries I am going to showcase here is Canada.

There are critics on welfare state whose fallacy has resulted in many people ended up in making a living by the social welfare of the government. In this prospect, humble theorists on weaker people are to endorse support on short term rehabilitation so that they can find job and decent wage to feed themselves. There are categories of disable people on both mental and physical disability, seniors and others who are fallen in lifelong social support. Hence, those who are able to work, the support is not long lasting.

But the goodness to operate through this policy, the civilized 2015-02-09 11.30.09countries can ensure fair distribution of nation wealth to everyone. Government has collected money from both natural resources and taxes, and government is accountable to share those collected revenue equally to everyone. Those money belong to the people, not to the government staffs and elites at all. Those officials and top government leaders are the servants of the people. The state’s assets and wealth are belonging to everyone regardless of who they are. This welfare state policy has created to ensure this fundamental perception of human dignity and social equilibrium.

With those short term supports, government of Canada has projected to build long term capability of all Canadian citizens. Each year, both provincial and federal government has spent huge money in the effort to protect children from domestic abuses and looking after the well-being of family. Family is considered the important particle of the society and future effective generation for the nation.

There are different mechanisms to protect children through “Child and Family Services” such as:

  • To protect, serve, and enhance the well-being of vulnerable children, youth and families through engaging communities and leading in the creation and delivery of services.
  • Child abuse hotline
  • Child disability resource link
  • Bullying help phone
  • Kids help phone
  • Family violence info line 24 hours
  • 24 hours child intervention line
  • Etc.

2015-02-09 11.29.35Recently, the yoke of political competition has commenced government-led PC party, PM Stephen Harper, to announce the increase of Universal Child Care Benefit which will increase from $100 to $160 per month up to 5 years old and renewing benefit of $60 per month from 6 to 17 years of age for per child. Also, married coup family can claim more on delivering tax credit and fitness tax credit etc.

This increasing amount policy towards supporting children and non-separated couple families is a great move to help children’s healthy growth and family bonding. It has also reduced burden to hire professional social workers to handle this complex family issue.  

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Political Paradigm by Younger Khmer Generation Part 7

Indochina 1931 Exhibition 3This leadership skills commentated by Sophan Seng through cmnkhmer.org radio that those political parties especially CNRP should consider adopt it for their political policy and long term political platform. This is invaluable to listen, to adapt and to adopt.

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Weekend Leadership Skills

Dear Devoted Readers;

From Mind Tools, we have learnt that to effectively activate leadership skills, we must hold onto frequent EXERCISES on:

  1. Creativity: strengthening creativity in your team
  2. Problems Solving: fun ways to turn problems into opportunities
  3. Communication: fun ways to develop communication skills

All these, are Team-Building Exercise that everyone should spend time to cohort and materialise.

Hence, I have learnt some short saying from facebook and wish to share with everyone for this Weekend Leadership Skills Tool:

During the battle war, we need brave men During troubles, we need intellectuals During suffering, we need genuine Dhamma We know true friend, during difficulties
During the battle war, we need brave men
During troubles, we need intellectuals
During suffering, we need genuine Dhamma
We know true friend, during difficulties
Don't go to the war without having ammunition Don't make a life journey without having knowledge Don't want to employ without having skills
Don’t go to the war without having ammunition
Don’t make a life journey without having knowledge
Don’t want to employ without having skills
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